Paroxysmal dyskinesia is a rare movement disorder that is the result of hyperkinesia attacks. These attacks are characterized as irregular and extreme body movements. These attacks are uncontrollable and typically happen with a conscious mind. Paroxysmal dyskinesia can be described similarly to Parkinson’s disease, but Parkinson’s has a decrease in body movements. PD is also similar to the symptoms of epilepsy. PD is a genetically passed disease through various gene mutations. The disease is not fatal but can be severe depending on the case. There are drugs and medical treatments that have shown great success in treating PD.
Cause: The disease passes through family lines because of a gene mutation.
Forms: There are 3 different versions of Paroxysmal dyskinesia: Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD), Paroxysmal Non-kinesogenic Dyskinesia (PNKD), and Paroxysmal Exercise-induced Dyskinesia (PED). PKD usually begins in early childhood and the involuntary movements are usually triggered by voluntary movements. PNKD is not triggered by voluntary movements and can last for long periods of time. PED involves painful involuntary movements triggered by exercise.
Treatment: There a various forms of treatment for the various types of PD. For PKD the best type of medications are sodium blockers. These help manage the frequency or level of attacks. Rest and avoidance of stress or excitement also helps manage frequency of attacks. PNKD has more complex treatment than the other forms. Muscle relaxant drugs are the best way to avoid attacks. Similarly avoidance of stress and caffeinated and alcoholic drinks are helpful. PED treatment includes various types of gluten altered diets help control outbursts. The best way to prevent PED attacks is to have minimal physical exertion activities.